Big Wave, Wakayama, Wakayama, Japan
After a busy Saturday things calm down significantly this coming Sunday, with only a single Asian card taking place. That card is a Kuratoki promoted card in Wakayama, with two bouts of note on it.
The main event of the show will see Yuri Takemoto (8-2-1, 4) take on Takuya Uehara (17-1, 10) in a genuinely brilliant domestic level match up, between two men who need a win after a lengthy lay off. The last time we saw Takemoto in action was August 2020, when he lost in 6 rounds to Ryo Sagawa in a Japanese Featherweight title fight, and that loss showed there was a lot to like about Takemoto, but also showed his lack of experience and it was clear he needed more bouts, and more time to develop. As for Uehara this will be only his second fight since his 2018 loss to Satoshi Shimizu in an OPBF Featherweight title fight, with his latest bout being a razor thin 2021 win over Ryusei Ishii. This really is a must win, and should be a very exciting and hard fought bout.
A second interesting bout on this card will see JBC and OPBF ranked Bantamweight Yuki Yonaha (11-3-1, 8) take on tough Thai visitor Lerdchai Chaiyawed (7-8, 3). Yonaha was once tipped for big things, and whilst he's now 31, and likely one the back end of his career, there is the potential for him to mix it up at domestic title level before he ends his career. As for the Thai visitor, he is tough, and has been a credible tester on the Thai domestic scene, however we don't think he'll have the size, power or physicality to push Yonaha hard here.
SNHU Arena, Manchester, New Hampshire, USA
This Friday isn't a huge day for Asian fighters in general, in fact there isn't too many Asian fighters in action during the day, however there is one Asian fighter in a massive bout, and a bout that could lead him to bigger and better contests down the line, including potentially huge unification bouts.
That Asian fighter in question is Uzbekistani fighter Murodjon Akhmadaliev (9-0, 7) , who will be defending his WBA and IBF Super Bantamweight titles against Jose Velasquez (29-6-2, 19), in a bout that was put together at short notice after Ronny Rios contracted Covid19. The talented Akhmadaliev has raced through the division, and in just 9 fights has already picked up wins Danny Roman and Ryosuke Iwasa, to unify and defend his world titles, but did suffer from Covid earlier this year and it's always hard to predict how a fighter will look after testing positive for the virus. At his best he's probably the best fighter at 122lbs, which is a deep division with the likes of Stephon Fulton, Raeese Aleem and Brandon Figueroa also being in the mix for the #1 position. As for Velasquez he's a natural Bantamweight who's best win has come against Melvin Lopez. Despite an underwhelming record, Velasquez has turned his career around, and won his last 21 bouts. Sadly however they have come at a low level, and this is a major step up, as well as a bout he's taken on short noticed and moved up in weight for. An in depth preview of this bout can be read here Akhmadaliev returns for second world title defense!
Korakuen Hall, Tokyo, Japan
In terms of action in Asia we get a small card in Tokyo, thanks to the Misako gym. It's not a major card, but it does have one bout of note on it.
The one bout of note on this event will see former 2-time Japanese Super Flyweight champion Kenta Nakagawa (19-4-1, 12) take on rising prospect Ayato Hiromoto (4-0, 2). The 36 year old Nakagawa hasn't fought since suffering a brutal TKO loss at the hands of Ryoji Fukunaga back in December 2020. That was a loss that would have needed a lengthy rest period for Nakagawa, but at the age of 36 we're really not sure what he has left in the tank. Hiromoto on the other hand is a 24 year old, taking a big step up in class, but a youngster who will be fully aware that a win here puts him right in the mix for a title shot of his own. Of the two men Nakagawa has the edge in experience and power but Hiromoto hasn't taken much punishment, is younger, and the more polished of the two. Despite the show, overall, being bad, this is a fantastic match up and should be a very, very interesting one for the future of both men.
Sadly a scheduled bout between Takuya Uehara (17-1, 10) and Ryukyu Oho (7-5, 4), which was planned for this show, was cancelled in the week leading up to the event.
Over in Thailand we should be seeing the return of a familiar face, as Indonesian veteran Daud Yordan (40-4-0-1, 28) takes on Rachata Khaophimai (7-0, 4) for the vacant WBC Asian Boxing Council Silver Light Welterweight title. The talented Yordan, who has faced a genuine who's who during his career, will be fighting for the first time since he beat Michael Mokoena, around 2 years ago, and will be looking to remain relevant in the sport. Sadly however Yordan is now 34, and is very much coming to the end of his career, we thought was clear 3 years ago when he looked old and slow against Anthony Crolla. Aged 18 Rachata is a new face on the Thai scene, though sadly his competition so far has been dire, and he's yet to beat a guy with a winning record. Given his competition so far, he's not just stepping up in class here, but leaping up, massively. We do feel Yordan's career is winding down, but a loss here for the Indonesian veteran would be a massive shocker a huge upset.
This coming Friday is a small but notable day in Asia, with a potentially very exciting, but easy to over-look show in Tokyo and an Uzbek hopeful getting a chance to show what they can do.
Korakuen Hall, Tokyo, Japan
The card in Tokyo is small one but a pretty notable one.
The main event here will see former world title challenger Akihiro Kondo (32-9-2, 18) take on Japanese Brazilian Cristiano Aoqui (15-8-2, 11) in what should be a really exciting and action packed bout. The tough and aggressive Kondo is certainly a rough around the edges fighter but is rugged, comes to fight, and can be a nightmare for much better fighters, as we saw against Sergey Lipinets. As for Aoqui he's not the best fighter out there, but he's explosive, exciting and hard hitting. Aoqui is, like Kondo, quite rough around the edges, but his style should gel with Kondo's to give us something brilliant to watch. This will be Kondo's pressure and toughness against Aoqui's explosive aggression.
In the chief support bout the once beaten Takuya Uehara (16-1,10) will be looking to bounce back from a 2018 loss to Satoshi Shimizu. Uehara has sadly been out of the ring for well over 2 years but will be looking to prove a point here and get his career back on track. In the opposite corner to Uehars will be Ryusei Ishii (8-6-1, 5), who has been very out of sortes in recent bouts and is 2-4-1 in his last 7.
Reed Arena, College Station, Texas, USA
As well as the action in Japan we're also expecting to see some action in the US of interest as once beaten Uzbek fighter Jamshidbek Najmitdinov (16-1, 13) makes his US debut. Although not a well known fighter Najmitdinov is a very dangerous fighter, and is well over-due a chance to show what he can do on a big stage. The now 31 year old is not among the top amateurs from Uzbekistan, but he is someone who should be more well known and was legitimately robbed in 2017 when he faced Viktor Postol in Ukraine. Sadly at the time of writing his opponent for this bout hasn't been confirmed, though hopefully it will be someone capable of asking him questions, as he can ill afford to waste more time with mismatches.
This coming Monday Japanese fight fans get a genuinely exceptional card, headlined by an OPBF Featherweight title fight, between unbeaten fighters, and stacked with several other notable bouts, including 2 genuinely brilliant support bouts.
The main event of this card will 2012 Olympic bronze medal winner Satoshi Shimizu (7-0, 7) take on Takuya Uehara (16-0, 10). The bout will be Shimizu's 4th defense of the OPBF Featherweight title and if he wins he's expected to be moved aggressively into a world title fight in the new year. Despite being a stand out amateur Shimizu has looked like a flawed professional, but with his unbeaten record and perfect T/KO run it's hard to double the results, even if the performances haven't been the best. The 23 year old Uehara is a former WBC Youth champion but this is a massive step up in class, and is likely to be his first bout against a genuine puncher. This could be a good test for Shimizu, but one he'll be expected to pass. A full preview of this bout can be found here - Olympic hero Shimizu takes on Uehara in next OPBF title defense!
The co-feature looks even better than the main event, and is a really well balanced match up that should give us a combination between explosive heavy handed blows and skills. The match up pits the very heavy handed Tsuyoshi Tameda (18-3-2, 16) against the incredibly highly skilled Hinata Maruta (7-1-1, 6), in a bout that will likely lead the winner to a regional title fight in 2019. Tameda is the more raw fighter, but also the hard hitting and the one with real explosive power. Maruta is the more skilled man, but has failed to deliver on the promise he has in recent bouts, and some are perhaps not doubting the Morioka man. This really could be something very, very special. A preview of this can be read here - Preview - Maruta and Tameda to fight on December 3rd!
Another interesting all prospect match up is a mouth watering 8 rounder between Taku Kuwahara (2-0, 2) and Takamori Kiyama (2-0, 2), which may well go down as the best match up between a couple of 2-0 fighters ever. As an amateur Kuwahara was a 2-time national champion and the Ohashi gym view him as a potential major player in their gym, this is however a massive step up in class from the Indonesian fighters he has faced in his first two bouts, neither of which have lasted a round. Kiyama, from the Atsumi gym, was also an amateur standout, and he's has looked fantastic since turning professional as well. This is really a risky bout for both fighters but they should both be admired, for willing to risk their "0" against a fellow prospect this early on.
Former Japanese Supe Featherweight champion Seiichi Okada (21-6-1, 12) looks to record his 4th straight win, as he takes on the limited Takahiro Araki (12-7, 4). Okada is a faded force to the man who had pushed Takashi Miura hard in 2010 and had gone on to win the Japanese title the following year, running up 3 defenses before losing to Daiki Kaneko. He is however capable against the lower level domestic fighters and will see this as a good chance to score his 22nd professional win. The 31 year old Araki however is no push over and will see this an opportunity to get a win against a former national champion.
The once touted Sho Nakazawa (11-2, 5) looks to continue rebuilding his career after a 2017 loss to Ryo Hino. The former amateur standout will be looking for a second straight win as he takes on Filipino journeyman Jhon Gemino (17-11-1, 7). On paper this looks like a mismatch but Nakazawa really has failed to shine as a professional and Gemino is the sort of fighter who can be a very tricky out. We suspect Nakazawa gets the win, but Gemino won't have travelled to just roll over.
Another prospect on this card is the highly touted Kazuki Nakajima (5-0, 4), who takes a notable step up in class to fight the experienced Yoshihiro Utsumi (15-8-3, 10). So far Nakajima has only been tested one, with Taiga Higashi giving him issues last December, and has otherwise had things all his own way. Utsumi on the hand has collected losses, but has faced tough competition with losses to Yasutaka Ishimoto, Ye Joon Kim and Hiroaki Teshigawara. It's worth noting that coming into this bout Utsumi scored a huge upset win over Hibiki Jogo and is riding a 3 fight stoppage run into this contest.
This coming Monday attention turns to Osaka where we get two different shows.
One of the two shows takes place at the EDION Arena Osaka, where Hiroki Ioka puts on a small card, featuring a couple of low key but relatively notable contests.
The main event is scheduled for 10 rounds and will see Rikuto Adachi (10-1, 7) take on Filipino Jonel Dapidran (10-2, 6) in a brilliant clash of 20 year olds. The Japanese fighter suffered his only defeat in the 2017 Rookie of the Year final at Welterweight, losing a close decision to Hironori Shigeta, but has since bounced back with a pair of stoppage wins over visitors. Dapidran is a solid fighter, but has lost 2 of his last 5 and a win here would be his best so far. We genuinely are expecting this to be the bout of the day.
In the chief support bout on this card fans will see Koya Sato (11-4-1, 2) battle against Tatsuya Terada (6-3-2, 1). Sato is the more experienced fighter, and is currently riding a 4 fight winning run. Terada on the other hand is 1-1-1 in his last 3 bouts. This should be competitive, but Sato's experience should be the difference maker.
The other show is an Apollo promotions card from the Yodogawa Ward Center. As with the Hiroki Ioka card this isn't a big show and only really has 3 bouts of any note.
The headline bout on this show will see the unbeaten Takuya Uehara (15-0, 9) face off against Noriyoshi Taki (6-7-1, 1). The talented Uehara has impressed in recent bouts, with notable wins against the likes of Markquil Salvana and Takuya Yamamoto. The 25 year old Taki is a southpaw, which Uehara does need experience against, but he has been stopped in 3 of his last 5 and we would be surprised by him lasting the distance with Uehara. On paper this is a step down for Uehara, but a chance to get some ring time against a southpaw.
In the leading support bout fans will see former Uehara foe Shota Yukawa (8-5-3, 3) take on Indonesian foe Ramly Pasaribu (6-13, 1). Coming in to this Yukawa has gone 2-3-1 in his last 6 and needs a confidence building performance. Pasaribu should serve as that confidence building win for Yukawa, with the visitor having been stopped in 11 of his 13 losses.
On paper the most even bout is another Japan Vs Indonesia bout, and will see touted prospect Takamori Kiyama (1-0, 1) face off with Ken Neparasi (1-0, 1). On paper this is an even looking bout but Kiyama is very highly touted and is expected to go a long way. Neparasi may turn out to be a surprising talent but we would be very shocked to see him really test the Japanese prospect, despite their similar professional records.
Fight fans in Osaka get a small card this coming Sunday, headlined by a local hopeful looking to extend his unbeaten record.
The aforementioned hopeful is the 22 year old Takuya Uehara (14-0, 8), who battles against Shota Yukawa (8-4-3, 3). The unbeaten Uehara is the WBC Youth Featherweight champion and he comes in to this bout looking to continue his climb towards bigger and better titles. Coming in to the bout Uehara is ranked by the JBC and OPBF and will know that if he can keep ranking up wins he could open the door to a Japanese or Oriental title fight in the near future. As for Yukawa he's a bit of unknown and isn't expected to provide much of a test for the youngster. At 30 years old Yukawa is probably as good as he'll ever be and although he's unbeaten in his last 3 we do question his hunger coming in to this bout.
Sadly other than the main event this show is a very weak one.
So Christmas is this coming Monday, Turkey, alcohol, presents, fun and family. On Sunday however we have fights in Japan as the sport delivers once more before the big day.
The more notable of two shows comes from Kadoma City in Osaka and will feature a number of notable fighters.
One of those notable fighters is second generation hopeful Juiki Tatsuyoshi (6-0, 4), who will be facing off with a Thai visitor in the main event of the card. The bout with Tatsuyoshi is his first to be scheduled over the 8 round distance, and will actually be aired on G+, who appear happy to push him as a star in the making, thanks to his still hugely popular father Joichiro Tatsuyoshi. This will be Tatsuyoshi's first bout of the year, though comes after a number of injuries and the birth of his first child, so expect a lot of substories being told by the TV crew, but the key is for the unbeaten Osakan to win, and move into 2018 with his unbeaten record intact.
In the co-feature we'll see former world title challenger Hiroshige Osawa (32-4-4, 19) look to take a huge step towards a second world title fight, as he takes on world ranked Nicaraguan Alexander Mejia (8-0, 4). Internationally Osawa is best known for his 1-sided loss to Oscar Valdez but has bounced back since then with two wins, including a wide decision win over the then unbeaten Julio Cortez. Coming into this Meija has never fought outside of Nicaragua and comes into the bout with split decision wins over Lesther Lara and Ramiro Blanco as well as his unbeaten record.
One other bout of note on this card will see Shohei Kawashima (15-1-2, 3) face off with Gaku Aikawa (8-5-1, 2) in what looks likely to be a pretty interesting match up. The once beaten Kawashima has only fought once since his narrow defeat to Cristian Mijares in October 2016 and is a very talented fighter, who may well suffer from inactivity here, after 9 months out of the ring. Although his record doesn't show it Aikawa is a very decent lower tier domestic fighter and could well take advantage of Kawashima's inactivity here.
The other show comes from Osaka city, and features some notable fighters, but far less than the other card.
The main event here sees the unbeaten Takuya Uehara (13-0, 8) take on Takuya Yamamoto (8-7, 4) in what looks like a mismatch on paper. The unbeaten 22 year old Southpaw has shown traits of being one to watch, but has been matched lightly, with his best win being a decision over Filipino Markquil Salvana. Uehara is young, and for that we can let him off for the poor competition, but it's starting to feel like he's ready for a step up. Yamamoto is a limited fighter but is much better than his record indicates, and he has given Shingo Kawamura and Yuta Uetani tough bouts in recent times, though was dominated by Satoshi Shimizu back in May, who stopped him inside 2 minutes.
In the chief support bout fans will see the touted Kazuaki Miyamoto (4-1, 3) take on a Thai foe, in what should be a straight forward win for Miyamoto. Miyamoto was stopped earlier this year, by Shuzo Inada, but should be able to record his second win since that loss.
The main show for us this coming Saturday is a televised card from the Korakuen Hall, which will be covered live by G+.
The main event of the card will see talented Super Featherweight contender Masayuki Ito (21-1-1, 10) take on Filipino foe Glenn Enterina (11-2-1, 8) in what is expected to be one of Ito's final bouts before a potential world title clash. The talented Japanese fighter, who unified the WBO Asia Pacific and OPBF titles at the end of 2016 is regarded as top 15 fighter by 3 of the alphabet organisations and will be seeking a title fight sooner rather than later. In his way will be the big punching Enterina, who will be seeking his first win outside of the Philippines, but will be regarded as a huge under-dog against the highly schooled Japanese hopeful.
Arguably the best bout on this card will see the touted Sho Nakazawa (10-1, 4) take on Ryo Hino (10-1-1, 6) in a very even looking match up on paper. Nakazawa was once seen as a top prospect in Japan but a loss last year to Teiru Atsumi put the breaks on that and two subsequent wins have scarcely excited the fans who seem to know that he is talented, but isn't quite as exciting as they had first hoped. As for Hino he's a bit of an unknown, though he did give Reiya Abe a tough bout a couple of years ago and has stopped his last 4. This could be skills against power, and should be the best bout on the card.
Another competitive looking contest will see the Japanese ranked Yuta Horiike (12-5-3, 3) take on Kyosuke Sawada (7-2-1, 4) in what should be a good supporting contest, just like the bout between Yosuke Fujihara (16-5, 4) and Keita Nakano (14-11-6, 4), which is likely to be much better than it looks on paper. Both of these bouts will be over 8 rounds and could be very interesting contests for fans watching at the venue and on TV.
In Osaka we'll see the unbeaten Takuya Uehara (12-0, 7) look to extend his unbeaten record as he takes on a Thai visitor in an 8 rounder. Uehara, the WBC Youth Featherweight champion, will not be risking his belt here but shouldn't have any problems beating the Thai, who we have been informed is naturally smaller and is typically fighting as a Super Bantamweight.
Ansan, South Korea
There will also be a show in Ansan, South Korea, with this show being part of the rising Boxing M series of shows. The theme of the show is that it's the last 8 of a Korean Lightweight tournament, however those bouts are joined by an interesting 6 rounder between Jae Woo Lee (4-2, 4) and Young Hwan Jun (3-3-1, 1), who we believe will be fighting for the right to challenge for a Korean title.
The biggest bout of the day, in regards to Asian fights at least, comes from Rizal where we see a rearranged contest between the talented, and criminally under-rated, Jonas Sultan (12-3, 8) and former world champion Sonny Boy Jaro (43-13-5, 30). The bout will see Sultan defending his IBF Inter-Continental Super Flyweight title, which he won last time out when he stopped Makazole Tete, and both men will be seeing a win here as potentially opening the door to a world title fight.
Xi An, China
In China we'll be getting quite a notable show.
The main event of this card will see the world ranked Can Xu (11-2) defending his WBA International Super Featherweight title against Filipino veteran Jack Asis (35-19-5,18). This will be Asis' first bout since he lost to Malcolm Klassen last year, and will see him ending a retirement, a retirement that he announced following the loss to Klassen. Xu is risking his world ranking and his title, but will favour his youth and energy to be the difference here.
In a bout pitting a local talent against an Indonesian, fans will see Wulan Tuolehazi (4-3, 1) battle former world title challenger Nouldy Manakane (32-21-2, 18), with Tuolehazi seemingly replacing Qiu Xiao Jun who was originally set to face the Indonesian veteran. At his best Manakane was a decent fighter, but nothing better than decent on the regional scene. Saying that however it's hard to know how good Tuolehazi is and although he should win here, it's still not likely we'll know really how good he is for a while yet.
In a China Vs Japan bout we'll unbeaten Chinese hopeful Baishanbo Nasiyiwula (11-0-1, 5) battle with Japanese veteran Taisho Ozawa (21-9-2, 13). Although relatively unknown Baisahnbo has caught our eye in the past and the 22 year old does look like a genuine prospect. Aged 36 Ozawa is in last chance saloon, and is looking to record his first win since 2012!
Also on this card will be a bout between heavy handed Puerto Rican Waldemar Pagan (8-1, 7) and Filipino Macrea Gandionco (12-4-2, 7). Although not an Asian fighter this will be Pagan's second fight in Asia, where he has also been used as a sparring partner, and he has impressed in the area, likely leaving a number of promotional outfits interested in him long term. The Filipino has already been stopped 4 times in his career, and it's hard to imagine him lasting the distance with the Puerto Rican here.
The only show in Japan is a small one in Osaka. Whilst it is small, and very low key, it does have a somewhat notable main event as the unbeaten Takuya Uehara (11-0, 6) defends his WBC Youth Featherweight title against Thai visitor Nongdear Sor Bangkharu (1-14). Despite the title being on the line it's hard to get too excited about this one given the unbeaten champion is taking on someone who has lost his last 6, suffering 5 stoppages during that run.
In Australia fans will see Australian veteran Les Sherrington (35-10, 19) battle against Indonesian foe Marco Tuhumury (11-17-2, 4) in what should be a straight forward win for Sherrington, despite the fact he's 34 and been stopped in his last 3 bouts, dating back more than 2 years.
This coming Sunday sees 3 shows taking place across Japan.
The most notable of the shows is in Fukuoka where we get female world title action.
That world title bout will see WBC female Minimumweight champion Yuko Kuroki (16-4-1, 8) battle against Mari Ando (13-9, 6), in what will be the second bout between the two ladies. Kuroki won the title in May 2014, when she defeated Ando, and has racked up 4 defenses of the title whilst showing genuine signs of improvement. For Ando the bout will be a chance to gain some revenge over Kuroki but a loss will almost be the end of her hard career.
In a really interesting supporting bout we'll see the struggling Hideo Sakamoto (16-3-3, 5) face of with Ryotaro Kawabata (11-2-2, 5). Sakamoto made a name for himself in 2014, when he upset Hiroki Shiino, and looked to be beading towards a Japanese title, but a draw with Hiroaki Teshigawara has been followed by losses to Kentaor Masuda and Seizo Kono, leading some to wonder how much he has left. For Kawabata the bout is a chance to score his biggest win following draws against the likes of Hirofumi Mukai and Rene Dacquel. It's hard to know how good Kawabata is, but he did run Mark John Yap very close just a few fights back and clearly has potential.
Another title bout in Japan sees unbeaten youngster Takuya Uehara (10-0, 6) battle Filipino Markquil Salvana (11-2, 5) for the WBC Youth Featherweight title. For Uehara this will be his first title bout, but his team have prepared him pretty well with a string of 8 rounders, though he has only gone that distance once. Salvana has previously fought for a title, losing in a WBA Oceania title fight in 2015, and is struggling for form coming into this bout with 2 stoppages losses in his last 4. On paper this looks good but with Salvana's struggle and the fact he is moving up in weight does mean it's hard to see anything but a win for Uehara.
On the under-card here we'll see the now struggling Tatsuya Ikemizu (13-2, 6) battle against limited Thai Jaipetch Chaiyonggym (5-6, 1). Ikemizu has lost 2 of his last 3 bouts, albeit to good fighters in the form of Mak John Yap and Jonas Sultan, and is now looking to rebuild his career before being written off. Despite the set backs Ikemizu was the 2013 Bantamweight Rookie of the Year and has shown plenty of promise, though one wonders about his mental state. Jaipetch is expected to offer no resistance and will likely suffer his 5th stoppage loss.
There will also be a show in Hyogo, featuring no title action.
The main event of the show will see former Japanese title challenger Takumi Sakae (14-1-1, 9) face off with Ryoki Hirai (7-4-1, 3) as Sakae looks to end a bad year. Sakae began 2013 as a world ranked hopeful but a loss in a Japanese title fight with Tatsuya Fukuhara and a technical draw against Lito Dante has left him really needing to rebuild and a win over Hirai here would steady the ship leading into 2017. It looks like Hirai is a safe opponent for Sakae, with little to really test the youngster, but their will be questions about Sakae's confidence following the year he has had.
On the under-card wee see the once beaten Tetsu Araki (6-1-1) look to score a third straight win as he takes on Takuya Fujioka (7-5-1, 1) for the second time. This looks like a straight forward win for Araki, who's only loss was a razor thin set back to Tenta Kiyose in September 2015, however Fujioka did run Araki very close when the two men first fought back in July 2015.
Another notable under-card bout here will see Giraffe Kirin Kanda (7-2, 4) take on Shota Aikawa (5-6-2, 2) in an interesting looking contest. On paper Kanda will be the favoured fighter but he was stopped inside a round last December and has fought only a single round since that loss . Aikawa has lost his last 2, but will come in here looking to change that here against a possibly rusty Kanda.